Togas in the Backyard

Dorothy GillI must confess: I’m not a particularly energetic, clever or imaginative homeschooler. I just have attitude. 

And while I’ve been at this for over 20 years, like the Velveteen Rabbit, I sometimes sit still in the bracken of stacked teacher’s manuals and hope that the other homeschool moms won’t notice.  As they hop sideways, on their hind legs and whirl round and dance, I am longing to join them, but am keenly aware of my lack of artistic legs.   So while scope and sequence recommendations and Common Core standards do not intimidate me, I have always longed for the creative flair.   

Above all, teaching history requires imagination.  While I generally detest for-classroom text books with their “read the chapter, answer the questions approach,” left to my own devices I can never seem to fully launch into the “living history” method that homeschooled kids love.

This is where belonging to a homeschool support group really pays off.  With all sorts of talented homeschoolers —   left-brain, right brain, and menopause brain — you are sure to find people who will complement your strengths, compensate for your deficiencies and create magic for your students. 

Ancient History assignments had my kids merrily creating maps, time-lines, poetry, vocabulary or costumes for the Big Day. We recited the bloody portions of “Horatius at the Bridge” (did I mention I have only boys?) 

Birthed in the crucible of necessity, the modern homeschool co-op harnesses this diversity (sorry, I usually avoid this word)  and yields a blend of arts & crafts, literature, research, home-ec,  drama, composition and public speaking — all rolled into performance art.  They don’t teach history to your kids, they invite them to discover history.

I experienced textbook-free, blended-age learning in an Ancient History co-op with families from Holy Rosary Parish in Portland, Oregon. My first clue that I was onto something special was my kids asking, “When do we get to go to co-op?”  They were actually begging to do history!  Soon, they became the enforcers of the schedule, hounding me for assistance as they prepared for the Big Day each week. The younger kids would listen to stories read out loud and maybe draw a picture while the older ones would work on reading a novel or encyclopedia article.  Their Ancient History assignments had them merrily creating maps, time-lines, poetry, vocabulary or costumes for the Big Day.

My math brain boggled at the cornucopia of offerings: carpentry, cooking, plays, painting, pottery, sewing, singing, sculpture, science, weapon making, architecture and games.   No one mom could hope to teach such a series of classes, and not collapse in exhaustion.  And yet, joined together, the burden was light as our kids experienced a culture distant in both time and space in a way that no text book could compete with.  It was memory-making magic.


In studying Ancient Rome, we examined the five century development of the Republic and worked through the Pax Romana.   But instead of only reading, we immersed ourselves. Tarquin brutally ruled over all in the household chores one day, which led to Brutus leading his overthrow, and the tension between the patricians and plebeians which led to a workers strike and no dishes getting done until terms of tribune representation were agreed upon.  We recited the bloody portions of “Horatius at the Bridge” (did I mention I have only boys?)  and constructed catapults and armor.

When our Ancient History adventure was over, we celebrated. The dads joined in, all of us wearing bed-sheet togas and declaiming in simple Latin.   We reclined in the backyard at our plywood table and guzzled grape juice “wine” from goblets as we were served by “slaves.”   We ate with our fingers off a common platter, dipping figs in honey and bread in olive oil.  

We will never forget these lessons and memories that our co-op adventures have brought us.  And while my legs remain as inartistic as ever, to my kids I am a dancing real homeschool mom.

The dads joined in, all of us wearing bed-sheet togas and declaiming in simple Latin.   We reclined in the backyard at our plywood table and guzzled grape juice “wine” from goblets as we were served by “slaves.”

pax2pax3ROMAN ‘SLAVES’ PREPARING FOR A BACKYARD FEAST: AnAncient History homeschooling co-op by parishioners at Holy Rosary Parish in Portland, Oregon culminated in a ‘feast’ for all who taught their kids about the legacy of ancient Rome.


by Dorothy Gill

What Our Readers Say About REGINA


Rev. Anthony Patalano, Rector, Holy Family Cathedral, Anchorage, Alaska

What you are doing is WONDERFUL! I will offer several Masses for you and the success of REGINA.


Dr. Tracey Rowland, John Paul II Institute, Melbourne, Australia

This is fantastic!  I have been raving on about truth, beauty and goodness for a decade, and now finally someone has done what I have been arguing for in theory.  This is exactly what is needed.


Molly O’Donnell in Portland, Oregon

You are to be commended.  It is truly a work of art – interesting, informative, funny, human, thought provoking, real and the list goes on….  Congratulations!  I love the dedication to our beloved pontiff and agree wholeheartedly with your sentiments.  I also like that you addressed the issue of pornography which is so huge but generally swept under the table.

Grace Sakelson in Hawaii, USA

I LOVE IT!! It is a wonderful magazine, so insightful and inspirational! Very beautifully done!

Dr. Stefan Schilling in Trier, Germany

You have done a beautiful job. Much success for REGINA in the future!

Rachel Cellaigh in Cheltenham, England

I loved my first issue. I am so impressed with the magazine and as a fellow Catholic in this culture we need to inform and keep our faith strong. I truly want the magazine to be a success.

Suzanne Salvo, USA

My jaw-dropped!! REGINA is my Vogue or Cosmo or even Oprah’s mag!

**standing ovation here**

W. Shawn Conway in Indiana, USA

I love it. Short, easy to read, yet substantive stories. And beauty attracts. I have forwarded REGINAMarvelous – His blessings on your endeavor.

Christoph Pitsch in Tokyo, Japan

I will introduce some of my friends to REGINA. Also my mother. I hope your plans can be realized and the readership of REGINA will grow.

Lisa Edson in Portland, Oregon

Thank you! I wanted to share with you how much I have enjoyed your publication. I look forward to finishing this wonderful edition and look forward to the one coming.

Ron Juwonoputro in Norwalk, Connecticut

Awesome first edition congratulations!!

David Reid in Vancouver, Canada

Thank you for sending me this magazine. Can I reprint some of the articles for the Vancouver Traditional Mass Society Newsletter?

Stephen Little in Indiana, USA

Thank you so much for …the magazineit’s so cool! I have shared this with my Little Women. And the emphasis on princesses and beauty – my girls are TOTALLY enamored of becoming true princesses right now!

Karl Keating in California, USA

REGINA is a fine-looking publication. Congratulations! Your inaugural issue has quite an array of women on the cover. I am especially pleased to see Empress Zita and Madame Curie. (I visited the latter’s tomb in Paris a year or so ago and noted that it was the only tomb in the whole of the Pantheon that was strewn with flowers and notes from admirers.)

Michele Inman, USA

I’m so excited for you – I just KNOW it will be a HUGE success! This is perfect timing, and needed very badly.

First Communion, Roman-Style

In 155 AD – roughly 125 years after Christ’s death – St. Justin Martyr wrote to Emperor Antoninus to explain what Christians actually did during their rituals.  Christians were persecuted for their ‘atrocities’ and the Saint was appealing to reason, pleading for the Emperor’s clemency.

“On the day we call the day of the sun, all who live the country or the city gather in the same place. The memoirs of the apostles and the writings of the prophets are read…when the reader has finished, he who presides (priest) over those gathered admonishes and challenges them to imitate these beautiful things.

communion1communion2Then we all rise together to offer prayers for ourselves and for all others, wherever they might be, so that we might be found righteous by our life and actions. Then someone brings bread and a cup of water and wine to him who presides over the brethren.  He takes them and offers praise and glory to the father of the universe through the name of the Son and the Holy Spirit and for a considerable time he gives thanks (Greek: eucharistian) that we have been judged worthy of these gifts.

Because this bread and wine have been made Eucharist, no one may take part in it unless he believes what we teach is true…”


St Justin and second century Christians were carrying out the wishes of their master, Jesus of Nazareth. 

In the two thousand years since, Catholics have carried out Christ’s command by celebrating the memorial of His sacrifice.  In so doing, we offer to the Father what He has given us – fruit of the vine and work of human hands – bread and wine, which by the power of the Holy Spirit and by the words of Christ, become the body and blood of Christ. Catholic children wear white because it is the Christian color worn for Sacraments.

(Secret Catholic Insider’s Note: In the tradition of his Catholic ancestors, when England’s Prince Charles is crowned, he will wear white – the ancient symbol of a Christian King.)



A Parents’ Guide to First Holy    Communion 

Long after the party is on Facebook, your child will carry the memory of their First Holy Communion in their heart. Parents need to ensure that their children understand the high seriousness of the occasion and know the basic facts about the Faith when they take Holy Communion with Our Lord for the first time in their lives.

communion4Why age seven? For centuries, the Church has considered seven to be the “Age of Reason” – when a child can discern between right and wrong.

 Why First Confession? Confession – also called “Reconciliation” or “Penance” – is your child’s first experience with the great feeling of peace that Catholics have after they have unburdened their souls. Respect this sacrament, and teach your child to make a good confession.

For centuries, the Church has considered seven to be the “Age of Reason” – when a child can discern between basic right and wrong.


(Photo courtesy of Victor Di Corcia)




What can a young child have done that warrants this formal confession of sins? At the age of reason, children can understand a simple moral code – and they know when they have violated it. Also, the experience of seeing everyone go to Confession shows the child that we are all sinners – and that we are all forgiven because Jesus died for our sins.  Respect the Sacrament, and teach your child to make a good confession

What is an Examination of Conscience? Before the Sacrament, be sure they have quiet time to examine their conscience:

Why wear white for Communion? White is the Christian color, worn for all first sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders — and even the crowning of Christian monarchs!

How is the Catholic belief about Communion different from other Christian traditions? This is huge. Catholics – along with all Eastern Orthodox, Maronite, Coptic and Syrian Christians – believe in Transubstantiation. This means that the bread and wine are transformed in their substance to the Body and Blood of Jesus, by the actions of the priest who consecrates them at Mass.

Why is this such a big deal? Once consecrated, the Host and Wine are regarded by Catholics as the Real Presence of Jesus. This is why the priest carefully consumes all of the consecrated Host and Wine.

Catholics – along with Eastern Orthodox, Maronite, Coptic and Syrian Christians – believe in Transubstantiation. Once consecrated, the Host and Wine become the Real Presence of Jesus.

How should children be taught to behave when they receive Holy Communion? Catholics behave with utmost respect in the Real Presence. When the Host and the Chalice are raised, we are absolutely silent, eyes fixed on the Sacrament. Children should take Communion on the tongue if at all possible. They should also be taught to fold their hands reverently, keep their eyes down as they walk and never to chew the Host.

More questions? Google the Catechism of the Catholic Church for Children, the Baltimore Catechism or the Catechism of the Good Shepherd.

Pope Benedict: ‘What I Saw At Vatican II’


Vatican II opened the Church…”

“And all the people left…”

“There was the Council of the Fathers – the true Council – but there was also the Council of the media. It was almost a Council in and of itself, and the world perceived the Council through them, through the media.

So the Council that got through to the people, was that of the media, not that of the Fathers. And while the Council of the Fathers evolved within the faith, it was a Council of the Faith that sought the intellectus, that sought to understand and try to understand the signs of God at that moment, which tried to meet the challenge of God in this time to find the words for today and tomorrow.

So while the whole council – as I said – moved within the Faith, as fides quaerens intellectum, the Council of the journalists did not, naturally, take place within the world of faith but within the categories of the media of today– that is, outside of the faith, with different hermeneutics.

It was a hermeneutic of politics. The media saw the Council as a political struggle, a struggle for power between different currents within the Church. It was obvious that the media would take the side of whatever faction best suited their world.

vatican3“(In 1965) the media saw the Council as a political struggle…It was obvious that the media would take the side of whatever faction best suited their world.”


There were those who sought a decentralization of the Church, power for the bishops and then, through the Word for the “people of God”, the power of the people, the laity. There was this triple issue: the power of the Pope, then transferred to the power of the bishops and then the power of all … popular sovereignty. Naturally they saw this as the part to be approved, to promulgate, to help.

This was the case for the liturgy: there was no interest in the liturgy as an act of faith, but as a something to be made understandable, similar to a community activity, something profane. And we know that there was a trend, which was also historically based, that said: “Sacredness is a pagan thing, possibly even from the Old Testament. In the New Testament the only important thing is that Christ died outside: that is, outside the gates, that is, in the secular world”.

Sacredness ended up as profanity even in worship: worship is not worship but an act that brings people together, communal participation and thus participation as activity. And these translations, trivializing the idea of ​​the Council, were virulent in the practice of implementing the liturgical reform, born in a vision of the Council outside of its own key vision of faith. And it was so, also in the matter of Scripture: Scripture is a book, historical, to treat historically and nothing else, and so on.

And we know that this Council of the media was accessible to all. So, dominant, more efficient, this Council created many calamities, so many problems, so much misery, in reality: seminaries closed, convents closed liturgy trivialized … and the true Council has struggled to materialize, to be realized: the virtual Council was stronger than the real Council.

But the real strength of the Council was present and slowly it has emerged and is becoming the real power which is also true reform, true renewal of the Church. It seems to me that 50 years after the Council, we see how this Virtual Council is breaking down, getting lost and the true Council is emerging with all its spiritual strength.

And it is our task, in this Year of Faith, starting from this Year of Faith, to work so that the true Council with the power of the Holy Spirit is realized and Church is really renewed. We hope that the Lord will help us.

I, retired in prayer, will always be with you, and together we will move ahead with the Lord in certainty. The Lord is victorious. Thank you.

“This Council created many calamities, so many problems, so much misery, in reality: seminaries closed, convents closed, liturgy trivialized…”
Featured Pope Benedict XVI photo by Stefano Spaziani. with permission.


A Guide to Roman Eateries

Full Disclosure: The author is Italian-American from a generation that still knew how to cook ‘from scratch,’ so she ‘knows what good is’ without needing to spend a fortune to prove it.

First, you can get good food almost anywhere in Rome EXCEPT near the Termini (train station). Second, the same rules apply as in any major city – the joints that accept a bunch of credit cards on their windows will CHARGE you for that privilege. Third, the pizzerias are mostly ALL good.

Finally, any place that is self-consciously hip is to be avoided like the plague, because while the waiter is robbing you legitimately, his cousin will be waiting outside to rob you in other ways. But if you want something special – or near the Vatican—check these out!



Expensive, Drop-Dead View

Hotel Hassler’s rooftop is achingly beautiful and justly famous for decades for its appeal to the Hollywood, fashion design and diplomatic corps.

Cheap, Drop-Dead View

eateries4SHHH! This is a bigger secret than the cardinals’ vote. Calmly walk into the Hotel Pace Helvetia, and tell the front desk that you would like to take a photo from their rooftop. They will ask you if there is anything you would like to bring up from the bar. Say ‘YES” and climb into their tiny elevator, walk up another flight of stairs and emerge into a magical world of your very own, with the voluptuous beauty of Rome at your feet.


eateries6View from the Borghese Gardens

 Casina Valadier, on the lip of the Borghese Gardens is a romantic place to linger over coffee or drinks. The food is nothing special – but the VIEW is. Near the Villa Medici.



eateries1See and Be Seen, Roman Style

La Rampa, tucked around the side of the Spanish Steps, features a legendary buffet that will tempt just about anyone’s palate. Family-owned, an old favorite of designer Valentino, La Rampa is reasonably priced, too, for the tony neighborhood – right across from the American Express office, in case you’re short a few euro.



Ratzinger’s Refuge: Cantina Tirolese, Via Giovanni Vitelleschi 23

Atmospheric, tiny place with booths, sassy Italian waitresses, and excellent Tyrolean food. There is even a booth downstairs with a plaque on it in honor of Benedict XVI – when he was Cardinal Ratzinger, of course. Very reasonable prices, and a five minute walk from the Vatican in the Borgo.

eateries5Simple Family Place: Hostaria La Frusta, 1 Via Santa Maria dei la Fornaci

A decent family place with nice food. Blue checked tablecloths, no reservations needed. This is a neighborhood full of clergy, convents who take in visitors  and the San Pietrini – the Roman families who work at St Peter’s. Very reasonable prices and a three minute walk from Vatican City.

Why The Media Always Get It Wrong

“Habemus Papam!” The smoke billowing from the Sistine Chapel was white. On March 13, Pope Francis greeted 100,000 joyful Catholics who thronged St. Peter’s Square.

It was a perfect time for the talking heads in the “24-hour news cycle” to begin their incessant – and wrong — speculations. Columnists, politicians, and anyone who can get close to a microphone were telling the faithful what the church has to do to become more relevant.

In the days since the accession of Pope Francis to the Throne of St. Peter, the din has only gotten louder. I have a request to all of above: Put a sock in it. There is nothing as unattractive as a person with great knowledge or experience on more mundane matters discussing things about which he or she knows absolutely nothing. In the days leading up to the election and since, the punditry class has continued to ferret out dissenting opinions seeming to determine the best way for the Church to “get with it” is to harangue it.

CBS had to find two gals in the square of the estimated 250,000 that demanded ‘wymynpriests.’ Other networks did the same, and more. From divorced couples in their second marriages to homosexual activity to a plethora of other gripes, the news media was out in force not trying to understand the orthodox position, but rail against it. So let’s go through the list: women priests? Ain’t gonna happen. Same-sex marriage? Ditto. Birth control? See one and two. Pope Francis is a staunch defender of traditional Catholic doctrine (a key word, remember it).

Unlike many of the people spouting off in the media, this writer has spent much of his life reading, learning and understanding the doctrines of the church. Not only do I know the doctrines of the church, I understand their bases, and where they originate. I also know the difference between doctrine (women priests and same-sex marriage) versus discipline (clerical celibacy). Many in the punditry class not only get the two mixed up, they never attempt to understand them in the first place. That’s where I get angry, and I’m not the only one. Many Catholics are tired of having a caricature of our beliefs paraded around by people who don’t want to know any better.

When it comes to women in the clergy, this question was decided by John Paul II more than 17 years ago, and is considered part of the magisterium of the church (that means teaching authority, pundits), but it is also considered part of the infallible deposit of faith. To simplify, JPII’s statement simply said women can’t be priests because it is outside the realm of the church to change something that has been handed down to it. This isn’t politics, it is doctrine.

As far as same-sex marriage goes, we believe that man and women have different natures. We don’t buy into the current fashion that men and women are interchangeable except for the (to quote Monty Python) “naughty bits,” and that any differences are sociological or bred into the person. We believe the nature of a man and a woman is essentially different. They are complementary and that allows for the procreation of children as a real and necessary part of marriage. In fact, in our religion it is a sacrament, one of seven.

You, Mr. or Ms. Pundit, see marriage as a strictly social construct.  We see it as a physical and metaphysical union. Your limited outlook sees marriage as a matter of politics; we go far beyond that. Would it hurt to find out why Mother Church teaches on the matter? Google it if you don’t want to sift through the Catechism of the Catholic Church, or use Wikipedia. You can have your questions answered in seconds.

And while we’re on the subject of doctrine, I realize that many denominations have synods or conventions or confabulations of some sort wherein they determine what their doctrine is or isn’t. That means some ecclesial communities have women clergy or now bless same-sex unions. Let them, and more power to them. If people want to go that route, they can join those communions. We don’t and can’t put doctrines to a vote. Then they’d cease to be “doctrines” –by definition.

It’s the same with contraception. Does it interest you to know that this issue was discussed in some of the earliest documents the church has? It was proscribed then, and is proscribed now for the reasons that, among other things, frustrating the sexual act objectifies the people involved. Isn’t that something you are against? Would it interest you to know that up until 1930, every Protestant denomination taught the same as the Catholics? Yup, it wasn’t until the Lambeth Conference in that year that the Anglican Church broke with almost 2,000 years and other denominations quickly followed suit.

And bringing on such old dissident war horses like Matthew Fox or Sr. Mary Pantsuit of the Sisters of Charity, who ceased living the rule a long time ago, makes no difference. These people bring to life a famous quote by the Anglican convert Ronald Knox. He said the basic difference between Catholics and Protestants is that with Protestants they lose their faith and then their morals, with Catholics it’s the other way round. These people lost their moral bearings, but still want to call themselves Catholics, when in fact they ceased to be Catholic a long time ago.

Many of our modern-day politicians are in the same boat. My own congresswoman from the Connecticut Third Congressional District likes to trot out her First Communion photo,  but when it comes to abortion, birth control and same-sex marriage, she talks more like a Democrat than a Catholic. But, she still likes to call herself a Catholic. I can call myself an elephant, but that doesn’t make me one. The point is we’re not going to change our stance on moral teachings or any other doctrine just to “get with” the times. These are considered immutable truths. I know thinking of things as true and false is not something you’re used to in your world of ‘relativity,’ but some of us do think that way.

Ronald Knox said the basic difference between Catholics and Protestants is that Protestants lose their faith and then their morals, whereas with Catholics it’s the other way around. These old dissident war horses lost their moral bearings, but still want to call themselves Catholics.

And just so we’re clear: We don’t meddle in politics except when politics meddles with our beliefs. Abortion and same-sex marriage are two issues that encroach on our beliefs. We have a right and a responsibility to speak out against something that we believe is morally wrong.  Does that mean we’re perfect and without sin? Nope. That’s why our churches have confessionals – and guess what, confession is coming back in style. It’s a lot cheaper than hiring a shrink and the priest can say three little words that a shrink can’t, “Ego te absolvo.”

And we know we’ve had problems with scandals, but if you look at it, we’re not better or worse than other segments of society – just more visible. We’re working on those difficulties and the hurt our people caused. It means we’ve got work to do, but we’ve faced issues just as painful. But if you want a real good side-bar to the abuse story, find out why so many above-mentioned psychiatrists and psychologists put offenders back into circulation. Many of our bishops were only doing what the professionals were telling them, you know, the experts. That’s the part of the story yet to be told.

The point is, if you’re going to opine about us, at least have the intellectual honesty and journalistic integrity to find out what we believe and why. If you’re not going to do that, please gasbag about something else, and leave those of us who take these things seriously alone.  What you have is not an opinion, but a prejudice because, in the final analysis, you want it that way.


dumb2Bill Riccio, Jr. is editor and publisher of the West Haven (CT) Voice, a weekly periodical. He is an assistant organist at St. Mary’s Church, Norwalk (CT) and an instituted acolyte in the Diocese of Bridgeport. He may be contacted by email.  Bill Riccio photo be Stuart Chessman.

Featured photo attributed to Vdp (edição), This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license.


Crowning the May Queen



In May, Catholics hold a ceremony wherein a statue of the Blessed Mother is crowned by children, accompanied by solemn hymns, joyfully sung. Mary’s crown is made of woven May flowers.

The Catholic practice of assigning a special devotion to each month goes back to the early 16th century. In the late 18th century the May devotion to Mary arose among Jesuits in Rome.  In the early years of the 19th century, it quickly spread throughout the Western Church, and, by the time of Pope Pius IX’s declaration of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1854, it had become universal.

May crownings in honor of Mary stem from this time and many parishes are reviving them to honor the role that the Blessed Virgin played in our salvation through her fiat–her joyous “Yes” to the will of God. This Irish hymn dates back as far as the 13th Century, though in 1883, Mary E. Walsh adapted it.




Queen of the May  (Bring Flowers of the Rarest)

Bring flowers of the rarest
From garden and woodland
And hillside and vale
Our full hearts are swelling
Our Glad voices telling
The praise of the loveliest
Rose of the vale

Our voices ascending,
In harmony blending
Oh! Thus may our hearts turn
Dear Mother, to thee
Oh! Thus shall we prove thee
How truly we love thee
How dark without Mary
Life’s journey would be

O Virgin most tender
Our homage we render
Thy love and protection
Sweet Mother, to win
In danger defend us
In sorrow befriend us
And shield our hearts
From contagion and sin

Of Mothers the dearest
Oh, wilt thou be nearest
When life with temptation
Is darkly replete
Forsake us, O never
Our hearts be they ever
As Pure as the lilies
We lay at thy feet


REFRAIN: O Mary! we crown thee with blossoms today
Queen of the Angels, Queen of the May
O Mary! we crown thee with blossoms today
Queen of the Angels, Queen of the May!



Many parishes are reviving the Crowning of the May Queen to honor the role that the Blessed Virgin played in our salvation through her fiat–her joyous “Yes” to the will of God.

Rome, England and the Faith


Monty Python’s The Life of Brian begins with a radical Jewish insurgent named Reg, (John Cleese), who asks a rhetorical question of his fellow conspirators, ‘What have the Romans ever done for us?’

They built the roads, Reg!’ they answer him.

John Cleese’s character responds, ‘Well, that goes without saying!’

He’s then inundated by a litany of the benefits the Romans brought to Palestine until finally, one person utters in a quiet voice, ‘Peace?’

This article  – the first in a two part series – explores ‘what the Romans did for’ author Michael Durnan’s native Britain. Part One tells the fascinating story of ancient Rome’s enduring legacy, influencing Britain’s development until Christianity was legalized in the 4th century.

When the Romans arrived in “Britannia,” the inhabitants were Late Iron Age Celtic tribes. Centuries before, they had migrated from the Danube Basin, a tribal warrior people always seeking to expand their territory. The Romans found the Celtic Britons a well-organised society with strict laws, a relatively advanced bronze and iron technology and skilled craftsmen who made fine jewellery and weapons. Celts lived in round houses of wood, wattle and daub — with roofs made of thatch, or dry stone. Their houses were enclosed in huge, impressive hill forts, behind ramparts and ditches, all surrounded by wooden fences to keep out intruders or wild animals. Celtic Britons had a priestly caste known as the Druids, custodians of knowledge who allowed no written language in order to protect the secrecy of their sacred rites and their position as keepers of tribal law and history.

After Julius Caesar had conquered TransAlpine Gaul (France) he set his sights on the conquest of Britannia.  (Mediterranean explorers had earlier named them ‘the Pritani,’ which Latin speakers mispronounced as ‘Britanni.’) Caesar knew there was mineral wealth to be had as well as an abundance of wheat for his hungry Legions. Caesar had good military and political reasons for launching an invasion, too, as the British Celts were assisting the Gauls in their ongoing resistance to Roman conquest and occupation. Alas, both this effort and an invasion the next year were ultimately in vain, as Caesar was again forced to withdraw back to France to subdue the fractious Gauls.

Nearly 100 years passed before the Romans once again attempted to conquer Britannia. This time it would be the Emperor Claudius who would lead the invasion, seeking prestige and support from the Senate and the citizens of Rome since being proclaimed Emperor by The Army. What also helped persuade Claudius to invade was the arrival in Rome of Verica, a Celtic British tribal King who sought Claudius’s help in restoring him to his throne after he was ousted by King Caratacus. In 43 AD, an invasion force of nearly 40,000 landed on the Kent Coast and then advanced on the Celtic tribal capital of Camulodunum (modern day Colchester). Claudius arrived with elephants (guaranteed to strike fear into the Celts) and the city was soon captured.

durnan3One of the most famous and ambitious building  projects undertaken by the Romans was the construction of Hadrian’s Wall.  Remains of Hadrian’s Wall can be seen to this day; it has been designated a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.  The Emperor Hadrian ordered the building of his Wall, ‘To separate the barbarians rom The Romans and allow occupation to be consolidated in peace’. The Romans were constantly being attacked by the Picts from Caledonia (Scotland) and in 122 AD Hadrian visited Britannia, decided on a policy of damage limitation and ordered the building of a defensive Wall ,  constructed by Roman Legionaries who were as skilled as civil engineers as they were at warfare. It was a massive undertaking requiring huge amounts of labour, materials and money as well as logistical support. The wall was built 7 ft. wide and 15 ft. high with a deep ditch in front of it to entrap any would be attackers. Troops were garrisoned every mile in small castles with turrets in between each milecastle and behind the wall larger cavalry and infantry forts were constructed to house more troops to relieve or reinforce the guards in the milecastles and turrets. The whole project, including the quarrying of 27 million cubic feet of stone, took only seven years and a force of between 11,000 to 12,000 troops were needed to man the 156 turrets, 79 milecastles and 16 forts.

Today, even after 1,600 years of decay and purloining of stone for other building purposes, large stretches of the original wall and forts remain which follow the outlines of the bleak undulating landscape of present day northern England. What remains is a great monument to the ambition, skill and enterprise of one of the greatest civil engineering projects ever undertaken in ancient Britain. Excavation work at some of the forts on the Wall has unearthed examples of letters written on slivers of wood which provide valuable insights to daily life on the Wall. As Roman rule consolidated, many Celtic British monarchs and their more affluent subjects adopted Roman ways in dress, food and houses.


In 1960, the remains of an extensive Roman palace, named Fishbourne, were discovered in southern England. It is thought the palace belonged to a British Celtic leader, named Cogidubnus  who was appointed by the Emperor Claudius as a client King to help rule the local Celtic Britons on his behalf.  It is thought Cogidubnus was possibly the son, or related to King Verica who sought Claudius’s help as mentioned earlier. The palace at Fishbourne extended over 10 acres and was very opulent, boasting fine marble imported from Greece and Italy.

The legacy of the Romans in Britain includes that of religion. Although Christianity did not become the official religion of the Empire until the reign of Constantine, in the 4th C. AD, it did arrive in Britain secretly as Christianity was persecuted throughout the Roman Empire.

The Emperor, Septimus Severus, campaigned in Britain in 209-11 AD and to discourage the Christian faith prescribed the death penalty for anyone converting to the new religion.

A Romano-British soldier, named Albanus, was stationed at Verulamium and here he sheltered a Catholic priest during this period and was eventually converted by him. Alban was discovered and refused to renounce his new faith and so was put to death. He is the Christian proto-martyr of Britain. The Roman city of Verulamium is now named St. Albans and its cathedral, a former abbey church, which is partly constructed out of re-used Roman bricks, is also named after him. Two other Romano-British saints, Julius and Aaron, were also martyred for their faith during the persecution of Christians under the Emperor Diocletian in 304 AD.  (Part Two of this article in the Summer issue of Regina Magazine.)



A Tale of Two Margarets

Modern myth-makers have propounded a view in films and books showing Catholic women ‘oppressed’ by their religion – relegated to the status of inferiors, incapable of valour or great deeds. As the stories of these two great Englishwoman demonstrate, real history tells a very different story. My Lady Margaret, A King’s Niece She lived at … Read more

The Prodigal Daughters

prodical1Prodigal Daughters: Catholic Women Come Home to the Church,  By Donna Steichen (1999) Published by Ignatius Press, San Francisco, CA

He said: How many hired servants in my father’s house abound with bread, and I here perish with hunger? I will arise, and will go to my father, and say to him: Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee: I am not worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.  And rising up he came to his father. And when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and was moved with compassion, and running to him fell upon his neck, and kissed him.” (Luke 15:17-20)

Baby Boomers are a much-covered phenomenon, famous for their rebellion and independence. In the aftermath of the Boomers’ tumultuous coming-of-age in the 1960’s and 70’s, millions of young Catholics embarked on spiritual paths that took them light-years from the Church.

In Prodigal Daughters, Editor Donna Steichen brings together the stories of seventeen women who found their way home again. Fellow Baby Boomer Robert Beaurivage talks about his reaction to the stories of his spiritual sisters, in this review.

What gives our lives meaning?  Prodigal Daughters presents us with the beguiling stories of seventeen women writers of my generation who grappled with this existential challenge successfully. We Baby Boomers can relate to them, because their struggles are our struggles.

A good story needs a compelling setting, and there is no more compelling period in recent Catholic and American history than the great social upheaval of the 1960’s and their aftermath.  Indeed, we all deal with the consequences of those times every day.

Christ Himself told such stories to illustrate and reinforce the great Truths He was teaching. Today, even people who do not know the Bible know about the “Prodigal Son.” Prodigal Daughters invokes this most compelling theme: finding one’s way back home against great odds.

Today, even people who do not know the Bible know about the “Prodigal Son.” Prodigal Daughters invokes this most compelling theme: finding one’s way back home against great odds.


In each of these stories, we meet these engaging women so like our sisters and friends — with backgrounds ranging from the ultra-feminist to the new age aficionado, to the recovering alcoholic.  The roads they navigated differ broadly, but they all led back to the bosom of the Father: salvation through His Son, a sacramental life and the grace abounding in the Catholic Church.

In Prodigal Daughters, each woman recounts her way home, a story both delightful and moving for us in the retelling. The baby-boomer generation’s formative years were the time of Vatican II, Vietnam, race and war riots, “free love” and the “New Feminism.”  It was also the age in which Pope Paul VI said “the smoke of Satan” had entered the Church.  Dietrich von Hildebrand, an intellectual giant whose genius was recognized by various Popes, authored a book about this time period entitled “The Devastated Vineyard.”

And a devastated vineyard it was. Boomers across the U.S. studied the ordered certainties of the Baltimore Catechism one year, and the next were presented with “catechisms” entirely denuded of the supernatural. One year Boomers had First Friday Devotions, the Rosary and the study of the “Four Last Things.” Then suddenly, like a clap of thunder, these were summarily replaced by guitar Masses in the school basement and revolutionary “missionaries” giving lectures to Catholic school kids.

As anyone who lived through those times can recount, there was no place to hide. In my own experience, I can look back and realize that if anyone attending my school kept the Catholic Faith through that time, theirs would be a miracle of grace.

The Baby Boomer generation’s formative years were the time of Vatican II, Vietnam, race and war riots, “free love” and the “New Feminism.”  It was also the age in which Pope Paul VI averred that “the smoke of Satan” had entered the Church. 


There was no place to hide. In my own experience, I can look back and realize that if anyone attending my grammar school kept the Catholic Faith through that time, theirs would be a miracle of grace. 

These unsettling years of the devastated vineyard were the formative times of these writers. As Leila Habra Miller so succinctly put it:

“We were robbed…The overwhelming majority of young Catholics don’t have even a rudimentary understanding of their faith.  As a direct result of their tragic ignorance, a steady stream of young Catholics has poured out of the Church.”

I would hazard that Prodigal Daughters is a great book for a skeptic, as well. (After all, what a great opportunity to gain an inside look at how these intelligent women could inexplicably return to the source of so much ignorance, patriarchal repression and superstition!) One of the writers, Constance Buck, relates her musings concerning a devout Catholic, a daily communicant she worked with on Capitol Hill.   Mrs. Buck was bewildered by her colleague’s cheerfulness.

“… I regarded cheerfulness as a quality suited to morons.  Knowing about male violence, the loss of our precious environment, the trampling on human rights around the globe, not to mention the incalculable tally of sexual and racial discrimination in our own capitalist country, what intelligent person could be cheerful?”

Mrs. Buck could not understand it: she had never met anyone as cheerful as her Catholic coworker who though possessed of her own ideas, always based these on a bedrock “God-given principle.”  (Perhaps the irony of the situation escaped Constance at the time: while she had followed a path towards an illusory promise of fulfillment, it was she who grew to regard cheerfulness as the province of the unthinking.)

It is so easy for us to bring our own basic assumptions to bear on others.  Since these women have been on both sides of the fence, we can learn a great deal from their experience.  Juli Loesch Wiley is a notable example.  A former member of Pax Christi, she rubbed elbows with many feminist media figures such as Sr. Joan Chittister and Bishop Thomas Gumbleton.

“My habitual effort to look happy – or as happy as was consistent with the knowledge that the world in general is not going well – was replaced by actual hope and soaring joy. I realized how much despair I had been carrying around as a skeptic.”

As a wise priest once said, ‘be kind to the person sitting next to you, as he/she could be the next saint.’  Juli was such a person – a liberal feminist, but truly well intentioned, with a desire to protect innocent human life which eventually brought her into sharp conflict with her fellow travelers of the religious sisters at Pax Christi.

Had we met Juli in her early days, we might have judged her harshly. As we learn from her story, she was on the path back home, though we might

have missed that point entirely.  Even many of her companions had very fine qualities, and deserve our sympathy, if not our support. Juli relates the kindness and devotion of the Sisters: “the Pax Sisters are so good: brave, warm-hearted, justice-loving, prayerful, loyal. That’s what makes conflict with them so difficult.”

Yet, Juli Wiley did not let her attachment to the Sisters get in the way of her devotion to the unborn. She recognized the incongruity of the nuns observing Tisha b’Av (the Jewish day of mourning the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem) to commemorate the “injustices” done to the pro-abortion nun Sr. Mansour:

“What desecrates the Temple of the child’s body, if not abortion?  What destroys the Temple of the Church, if not organized defiance of the Church’s too-infrequent attempts to guard her moral integrity?  (I realized) that these Benedictines are true daughters of those who destroyed the Temples – not those who mourn them.”

For the believer, this book provides hope in large helpings.  As the story of the Prodigal Son illustrates, there is always a road back.  Light overcomes darkness, Truth ultimately wins over error, and the infinitely merciful Heart of Christ is greater than any sin that He has already vanquished.

If the great truths of our existence, if true knowledge is to be found in Divine Revelation – even in our modern age – then the stories of these intelligent, brave women are surely a cause for us to take note and rejoice.  They were so far away, yet made the improbable journey home.

The stories of these intelligent, brave women are surely a cause for us to take note and rejoice.  They were so far away, yet made the improbable journey home. 

Catholicism presupposes an objective truth, as a religion based on the historical Person of Jesus Christ, and a commitment to Him. He calls Himself in Scripture, “The Truth.” (John 14:6)

In the intellectual environment of the day, finding Him can be so very difficult, because the concept of “truth” seems foreign to so many, as it did to writer Maureen Quakenbush:

“Truth”, for me, had been a very limited notion, insofar as I had had a notion of it at all. Long before that time, I had accepted the principle that there is no truth, that all is relative in this world of mirrors. People who divide the world into the true and the false, I thought, fail to see all the gray areas – which are chiefly in the moral realm. I think this is the natural conclusion of a mind that hasn’t learned to reason clearly, whenever the resolution of two conflicting views would mean that one reputable person’s deeply held conviction must be wrong. Or, worse, that someone would have to change what he is doing.

Yet, the mere realization that there actually is a truth changed everything for her: “My habitual effort to look happy – or as happy as was consistent with the knowledge that the world in general is not going well – was replaced by actual hope and soaring joy. I realized how much despair I had been carrying around as a skeptic.”

Having imparted a small sampling of the many surprises in “Prodigal Daughters”, I will leave you with one more: an insight in the form of a prayer from Constance Buck who, after receiving this awesome gift of truth, realized at the same time her responsibility to proclaim the truth always with love:

“O God, first make me a good person, a virtuous person, a loving person. Then give me the truth.”

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Robert Beaurivage,  himself a “prodigal son” obtained a law degree as a second career, and has a special interest in traditional Catholic liturgy and theology. He currently lives in Southern Maine.

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